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Writing Center Miscellaneous Source Types: Miscellaneous Source Types

Miscellaneous Source Types

Note This is not intended to be an exhaustive list! These are just a handful of miscellaneous source types that students may encounter.

Conference Sessions

If a conference paper has been published in a journal, cite it as a journal article. If conference papers and presentations have been included in a published volume of the proceedings, you can cite that volume as an edited book, or you can cite the individual paper/presentation as a chapter in an edited book.

When creating a citation for a conference session, you should include the author, date, presentation title, the conference name and location, and any relevant DOIs or URLs.

Include the dates of the full conference in the Date element of your reference (2019, April 12–13), even though the presentation likely took place on just one day of the conference. Describe the type of source in brackets after the title. Typically, you’ll use [Conference session], [Poster presentation], or [Conference paper]. See the example below:

Cohoon, J. M., Nable, M., & Boucher, P. (2011, Oct. 12–15). Conflicted identities and sexism in computing graduate programs [Conference session]. Frontiers in Education Conference, Rapid City, SD, United States.

For in-text citations, include the name(s) of the presenter(s) and the year.

(Cohoon et al., 2011)

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources are used for referencing information that an author referenced from someone else. It is recommended that students try to locate the original source and just cite it directly instead of using a secondary source. However, this is not always possible!

When citing a secondary source, you need to include the author’s last name from the original source and the year that the original source was written. Then, include “as cited in” and write the secondary author’s last name and year.

(King, 1957, as cited in Stanford, 2006)

For the references list, you should only create an entry for the secondary author’s work.

Personal Communication

Personal communications are intended for information that comes from an unpublished source. For example, interviews, unrecorded class lectures, or email communications. When citing personal communications, include the author’s first initial and last name as a part of the sentence. Address it as a personal communication and list the date in parenthesis after the idea.

NOTE personal communications citations are only in the text of your paper and NOT in your reference list.

T. Jones stated that all ants crawl and snakes slither (personal communication, February 2, 2011).

Citing Multiple Texts by the Same Author

If the texts are not written in the same year, you can cite and reference them as you would normally. Since the year would be different, readers should be able to tell which works you are referencing.

If the articles are written in the same year, include a lowercase letter after each in-text citation to show the difference.

(Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012a)

(Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012b)

For the references page, you should include the corresponding lowercase letters to each source:

Judge, T.A. and Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2012a). General and specific measures in organizational behavior research: Considerations, examples, and recommendations for researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 161-174.

Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012b). On the value of aiming high: The causes and consequences of ambition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(4), 758–775.


If the source you are referencing has 21 or more authors, please click here to consult the APA Style page about this.