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Writing Center Audiovisual Media: Audiovisual Media

APA References: Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual works either audio or visual media components, or both. The reference format will change depending on whether the work stands alone (like a podcast) or is part of a larger whole (like an episode of a podcast).

  • Standalone Audiovisual Media
  • Audiovisual Media that is Part of a Whole
  • Audio Works
  • Visual Works

Standalone Audiovisual Media

For audiovisual media that stand alone, the reference structure is as follows:

Author Date Title Source
Publisher URL
Director, D. D. (Director).


Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer).


Host, H. H. (Host).


Artist, A. A.


Uploader, U. U.






(2019, November 12).
Title of work [Description].


Title of work (Version 4.6) [Mobile app].


Name of apparatus (Model number) [Equipment].
Production company.




Museum Name, Museum Location.


Department Name, University Name.

Audiovisual Media that is Part of a Whole

For audiovisual media that are part of a larger whole, the reference structure is as follows:

Author Date Title Source
Publisher URL
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director).


Host, H. H. (Host).


Producer, P. P. (Producer).


Composer, C. C.


Artist, A. A.


(2020, January 11).
Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description].


Title of song [Description].
In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company.


In Title of podcast. Production Company.


On Title of album. Label.



  • Please note that the author of the text will depend on what type of source you are citing. For example, the author of a YouTube video is the person or group who uploaded the video; the author of a podcast is the host or executive producer, etc.
  • Using square brackets, describe the medium after the title of the work: [Video] or [Audio podcast episode].


YouTube video (or other streaming video)

BBC. (2010, November 26). Hans Rosling's 200 countries, 200 years, 4 minutes - The joy of stats - BBC Four [Video]. YouTube.

Gates, B. (2020, February 9). Bill Gates explains how vaccines work [Video]. YouTube.

TED Talk

TED. (2017, March 6). I grew up in the Westboro Baptist Church. Here's why I left | Megan Phelps-Roper [Video]. YouTube.

Dombrowski, T. C. (2020, April). The dark history of IQ tests [Video]. TED Conferences.

Audio Works


Hirway, H., & Nosrat, S. (Hosts). (2020–present). Home cooking [Audio podcast].

Kilgariff, K., & Hardstark, G. (Hosts). (2016–present). My favorite murder [Audio podcast]. Exactly Right.

Podcast episode

Bowery Boys. (Hosts). (2018, April 20). The huddled masses: Emma Lazarus and the many meanings of the Statue of Liberty (No. 261) [Audio podcast episode]. In New York City History.

Glass, I. (Host). (2018, April 20). The problem we all live with - Part one (No. 562) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.

Visual Works

PowerPoint slides or lecture notes

Colorado State University Global. (n.d.). Module 5: Role of ethical communication and influence in leadership [Interactive lecture]. Canvas. Retrieved August 8, 2021, from

CB Insights. (2019, August 8). Global healthcare report Q2 2019 [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Stock image or clip art

Emma Matthews Digital Content Production. (2018, September 4). Letter board flat lay [Stock image]. Unsplash.


Column Five. (2010, February 26). The almighty dollar: Mapping distribution of income by religious belief [Infographic].

Wu, J., Cai, W., Watkins, D., & Glanz, J. (2020, March 22). How the virus got out [Interactive infographic]. The New York Times.