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Three ways to present sources in support of your central arguments include:
①Direct Quotes: Using an author's passage word-for-word with quotation marks or a block quote
②Paraphrasing: Putting a passage from source material into your own phrases (a citation will still be needed)
③Summarizing: Pointing out the most important part of another author's ideas (a citation will still be needed)
Remember--Always properly cite an author's original idea when you have directly quoted, paraphrased or summarized it! If you have questions about how to cite properly, consult the CSU-Global Guide to Writing & APA.
If you are tasked with writing something that requires multiple sources, consider starting to work with your sources via an annotated bibliography, or list of sources that includes a summary and evaluation for each source. The following method can help you survey the landscape of scholarship surrounding your topic and get you up-to-speed with the research conversation.
①Summarize: Questions to consider include: What is the intent or purpose of the article? Does the author provide key examples or figures central to the argument?Does the author point to previous context?
②Evaluate the Source: Questions to consider include: What makes the author an authority on the subject? What format is the source in (scholarly article, blog, print publication) and what does that indicate about the purpose and potential audience for the work? Are there any gaps in the research?
③Reflect and Synthesize: Questions to consider include: Does this work add new information to my research? Does is confirm what other sources have said? How does this source relate to other sources I have found?
It may help to concept map what you read in the literature and your own thoughts about the research to see how the literature and your ideas are interrelated. See an example below: